Hypertensive crisis: first aid and prevention of pressure increase
A sudden sharp increase in blood pressure is called a hypertensive crisis. People with high blood pressure (chronic hypertension or arterial hypertension) control their blood pressure with tonometers and take special medications. However, in the heat, the frequency of hypertensive crises increases, if not watch, besides such an attack of a sharp increase in pressure can occur not only in hypertensive patients.
How and why there is a hypertensive crisis
In a hypertensive crisis, as the pressure rises sharply, the person feels nauseous, headache, pain in the region of the heart, and can sweat dramatically. Each person has their own individual characteristics, therefore, the blood pressure (BP) parameters in a crisis can be different, it is not necessary that the blood pressure “goes off scale”. Hypertensive crisis in people with hypertension can be provoked not only by heat or increased air humidity, but also a break in treatment and an independent discontinuation of drugs prescribed by a cardiologist, deviation from diet (alcohol intake, excessive salt intake, smoked foods, pickles, fatty and fried foods in diet).
Also in people who do not have problems with the heart and blood vessels, a sharp rise in blood pressure can be caused by a stressful situation, excessive physical exertion, alcohol, problems in the work of the kidneys, the use of a number of medications (especially hormonal). Against the background of dramatically changing weather, when it is hot outside during the day, and quite cool at night, these factors may increase the risk of a hypertensive crisis.
First aid for a sharp increase in blood pressure
In an uncomplicated crisis, when a person, in addition to an increase in blood pressure, feels rapid heartbeat, he does not have enough air, his hands are shaking, it is important to calm him down, sit down or put him in a comfortable position, provide air access. If the affected hypertensive – it is important to know what drugs he takes and whether he has medication with him. If a person has already taken the medication, then taking it again can lead to a backlash: the blood pressure drops below normal and the heart rhythm is disturbed. Drugs start to act not immediately, but after 20 minutes. Also, hypertensive patients, especially with the appearance of edema, diuretics help to reduce high blood pressure.
With an uncomplicated crisis, the pressure on average decreases after half an hour or an hour, but monitoring of the condition and blood pressure should be continued for another 6 hours, ensuring the victim complete rest. In any case, cardiologists note the need to seek medical assistance. When calling an ambulance, the dispatcher must clarify whether blood pressure is measured, what the exact symptoms of the victim are, and, depending on the symptoms, will send either an ambulance or an ambulance. Complicated hypertensive crisis with vomiting, numbness of the hands, deterioration of vision can lead to myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, acute cerebrovascular accident. Therefore, people with these symptoms need urgent hospitalization.
Prevention of hypertensive crises
If you are a hypertensive and your doctor has prescribed medications, then take them all the time. Even if blood pressure has returned to normal, the withdrawal of drugs can cause a hypertensive crisis. If the drugs do not help, you should contact your cardiologist, he will review the treatment regimen. It is important not only to control the pressure with a tonometer and take medications in a timely manner, but also to follow the diet recommended by your doctor, not to overwork, not to be in the heat for a long time, especially without a hat.
Avoid the development of hypertension and, further, hypertensive crises, however banal it may sound, will help a balanced diet and the rejection of harmful products – fast food, convenience foods, fatty and fried foods, smoking, reducing the amount of alcohol consumed and regular physical activity.