How not to get sick with tetanus: we follow preventive measures
Tetanus is a very serious disease, known for a long time: even the ancient healers established the relationship between the injury and the incidence of tetanus. In autumn, when summer residents massively prepare for the winter, conducting general cleaning at the sites, the tetanus theme does not lose its relevance.
The tetanus rod is very poisonous and resistant to the external environment.
Tetanus (Latin name – tetanus), doctors call the disease, which develops as a result of ingestion of tetanus sticks. The bacterium enters the body through damaged skin or mucous membranes. With tetanus, the nervous system is severely affected, tonic strains of skeletal muscles, generalized seizures develop.
The tetanus bacillus is a bacteria that is very resistant to the environment, and its spores can stay in the soil for years and withstand very low temperatures. The pathogen enters the ground along with the faeces of infected animals, birds and humans. Having rummaged at the dacha, combing an insect bite on the skin, getting a burn, frosting or breaking a knee in the schoolyard, you can easily “open the door” to your body with a tetanus stick.
This microorganism is very resistant to the action of antiseptic drugs and disinfectants. It is only necessary to get into the environment without air access, where it will be warm and humid, – they will germinate into a vegetative form (this is the active breeding stage of the simplest life cycle) and will begin to produce the strongest tetanus toxin.
Tetanus risk group
In humans, the susceptibility to tetanus sticks is very high. Children are most at risk of getting sick (due to their high motor activity and injuries), specialists working in agriculture or in any industry where contact with soil, animals, sewage is unavoidable.
How is tetanus manifested
The period of development of the disease (incubation) can be both a few days and a month. The disease begins almost always in an acute form: initially, malaise, headache, tension and muscle twitching at the injury site can be observed. An important sign of tetanus is a pulling pain in a wound, even if it has already healed. Signs characteristic only for tetanus:
– Trismus (convulsive contraction) of the masticatory muscles
– in case of a trisism it is very difficult for the patient to open the mouth, the face acquires a maliciously sarcastic expression (the so-called sardonic smile)
– swallowing is disturbed (dysphagia)
Severe illness is very painful for the patient. Muscles are in tension almost around the clock, breathing becomes frequent and superficial, opisthotonus develops (a pose in which, due to incessant convulsions, the head is thrown back, the loin is raised, the patient relies only on the back of his head and heels). Abnormalities in cardiac activity, the inability to breathe normally due to convulsions can lead to the death of the patient.
Mild disease is characterized by infrequent convulsions (1-2 times a day from 1 minute to several seconds). The patient who has undergone tetanus recovering for a very long time, the body can fully recover no earlier than 1.5-2 months after the beginning of the recovery period.
How to treat tetanus
Tetanus treatment is only inpatient and includes a variety of medical procedures. This is a special gentle regimen, toxin neutralization, thorough wound debridement, elimination of convulsive syndrome, respiratory disorders, fight against dehydration and much more.
Tetanus prevention methods
In order to reduce the possibility of injury and, as a result, infection with tetanus bacillus, you should try to injure yourself less, observe the rules for treating wounds – in no case should you use such a popular method as attaching a wound to the ground.
Specific prevention of tetanus is routine immunization or emergency administration of tetanus toxoid when an open wound is received. Routine immunization is carried out in children from 3 months of age three times (according to the vaccination schedule) with DTP vaccine (DTP), the first revaccination is carried out after 1-1.5 years. Subsequent revaccination – every 10 years.