What is a cholera?
Today, the cholera epidemic is raging in Yemen, the world health system headed by the WHO pays much attention to this problem. This fact raises the question of what cholera is, why is it real in the 21st century and is it dangerous for the inhabitants of Ukraine?
Cholera: What is this illness, what are its symptoms and its consequences?
Cholera is an acute, especially dangerous, infectious disease. In a short period of time, it can infect a large number of people, causing the whole epidemic, with mortality from it reaching 50% in the absence of adequate treatment. According to WHO statistics, every year in the world 1.3 to 4 million cases of infection with cholera are recorded, with dying from 21 to 143 thousand people.
The causative agent of the disease is cholera vibrio, which is part of the flora of many reservoirs. Best of all, it multiplies at a temperature of 30-40 ° C, which is why the epidemic of cholera occurs in India, Asia and Africa, where it is hot. The cholera stick dies during boiling water, as well as under the prolonged influence of direct sunlight. On the surface of vegetables and fruits, it can live up to 5 days. The method of infecting a disease is fecal-oral, from one sick person to another, due to the secretion of the pathogen from faeces and vomit masses. Also, a person can get infected by drinking water with cholera vibrio.
Cholera is characteristic not only for what is a cholera? Is it dangerous for Ukraine? hot countries, but also for those who do not adhere to the rules of elementary hygiene, the process of water supply and water treatment is badly established. For example, in Yemen for several years there is a civil war, during which virtually all water pipelines were destroyed.
The incubation period of the cholera lasts 2-3 days, after which there are the following symptoms of the disease:
very strong diarrhea (up to 10 times a day or more);
general intoxication of the body, which is manifested by extremely intense vomiting.
Man loses enormous amounts of fluid – up to 20 liters, resulting in thickening of the blood and dehydration of the body. The condition of the patient very quickly deteriorates, because of the loss of fluid may appear muscle cramps.
The features of the patient’s face are exacerbated, the eyes fall, the lips are blue, the skin becomes cold, wrinkles on the hands and feet. If a person is not treated, she will die in the first day with a 50 percent probability.
Treatment and prevention of cholera
Treatment of cholera is performed exclusively in a hospital setting. The basis of treatment – replacing the needs of the fluid and the necessary trace elements in the body, support water-electrolyte and acid-base balance. Also, people are treated with antibiotics, cholera vibrio is sensitive to tetracycline. If the timely start of therapy, the probability of mortality is only 1%.
Repeated infection with cholera is quite realistic, and the disease does not provide stable immunity. Therefore, it is impossible to get vaccinated. Prophylactic remedies for cholera are as follows:
Wash your hands before eating and cooking.
Wash your hands after a toilet.
Drink only boiled water.
Wash vegetables and fruits thoroughly before use. In regions prone to the spread of cholera, it is also necessary to treat them with boiling water.
Swim only in permitted places.
Do not buy food in questionable places.
Do not eat in untested catering establishments.
So, can cholera be dangerous to Ukraine? For our geographical latitudes this disease is not typical, but the probability of infection always exists, especially considering the peculiarities of life in the modern world with the possibility of visiting troubled regions with a tourist or work purpose. Therefore, caution will not hurt, especially against the backdrop of an epidemic in the region of the Arabian Peninsula.